Intellectual disability or developmental delay is characterized by subaverage intellectual functioning. A person with a mild intellectual disability faces major trouble in managing their lives effectively without a support and apt treatment.
Intellectual disability is marked by varying degrees ranging from mild to severe. Children and adolescents with intellectual disability have a hard time in learning new skills, expressing their wants and needs and have a tough time in taking care of themselves or their need while walking, dressing, eating, etc. Severe intellectual disabilities can be identified within the first two years after birth which may or may not be accompanied by a delay in motor functioning. Intellectual disability may present with difficulty in verbal communication and an inability to attain social milestones. Mild intellectual disability, however, does not surface until the child reaches school-age and is unable to cope with his academic challenges.
Intellectual disability can be triggered any time before the age of 18 due to serious head injury, disease or abnormality in the brain. The exact cause, however, can only be determined after a proper diagnosis. The most common factors of developmental delay could be:
- Abnormal genetic conditions such as Down syndrome and fragile X syndrome
- Diseases and infections such as measles or meningitis
- Extreme malnutrition
- Exposure to poisons like lead or mercury
- Intake of drug and alcohol by a mother during pregnancy may have an adverse effect on the foetal brain
- Extreme prematurity and oxygen deprivation
- Brain injury
Therapies available for weak intellectual focus mainly on the rectification of the symptoms in patients. The Neuro-restorative approach, through cellular therapy, has shown great improvement for various intellectual disorders. Cells from different sources, such as bone marrow and umbilical cord blood, are rich sources of healthy stem cells that are isolated for treating muscular and neurological disorders. These cells can multiply to restore the deteriorated tissues and cells of the brain, replacing the damaged or dead cells with healthy neurons to regain the brain plasticity. Intellectual disability treatment with stem cells exhibits no adverse effects post administration.
Post intellectual disability treatment with stem cells, the result shows an improvement in the metabolic activity of the cerebellum associated with improved functional outcome. Followed by intellectual disability treatment, patients are also subjected to intensive neuro-rehabilitation therapy protocol, which includes occupational therapy, speech therapy, psychoanalysis and a balanced dietary advice. When cellular therapy is associated with proper rehabilitation therapies, the result further helps to strengthen the weakened neuronal networks in intellectual disability. A patient shows improved eye contact, learning ability, cognition, improved behaviour and an ability to perform his daily activities with ease.