HEAD INJURY EXPLAINED

Head Injury is caused when an external force causes a severe blow to the brain culminating into a serious injury. The injury thus occurred can lead to some complications like damage caused by lack of oxygen, rising pressure and swelling in the brain. Head Injury can be listed depending on its severity, mechanism and other features. It can be grouped into a closed and penetrating Head Injury when it comes to a categorization of the associated mechanism. A closed Head Injury happens when the brain does not have a protective layer over it. On the other hand, a penetrating Head Injury happens when a sharp item break opens the skull and enters the brain.

About Head Injury

Head Injury can be listed depending on its severity, mechanism and other features. It can be grouped into a closed and penetrating Head injury based on the categorization of the associated mechanism. Closed Head Injury occurs because of the absence of a protective layer over it. A penetrating Head Injury, however, occurs when a sharp object breaks open the skull and enters the brain.

Symptoms

A severe Head Injury may lead to an extensive effect of physical and mental health. After a traumatic event, some signs and symptoms may start to appear immediately while some others may experience it days and weeks later. A person that undergoes a Head Injury may show signs of loss of consciousness, headache, nausea or vomiting, fatigue and loss of balance.

They may display signs of finding difficulty in using their sensory and cognitive functioning and this leads to a blurred vision, ringing in the ears, a bad taste in the mouth or changes in the ability to smell and memory loss, concentration problems and mood swings. Head Injuries ranging from moderate to serious Head Injuries may have any of the signs and symptoms of mild injury.

Also,these symptoms are visible within the first hours to days after a Head Injury. Some of the symptoms are listed below:

  • Convulsions and seizures
  • Dilation of one or both pupils
  • Weakness and numbness in the toes and fingers
  • Loss of coordination
  • Agitation, combativeness or other unusual behaviour
  • Slurred speech
  • Coma

Conventional treatment options

After a person has a mild to acute brain attack, then the factors to be kept in mind while giving emergency care should be:

  • Ample supply of oxygen
  • Blood supply
  • To sustain the blood pressure
  • To avert more damage to the head or neck

In order to prevent minor damage after suffering an injury there are some medications that are used to help such as anti diuretics, anti seizure drugs and coma inducing drugs. Other cases like eliminating blood clot formation and fixing skull fracture may need surgery. This can be followed by a rehabilitation program like physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech and language pathologists and other recreational therapies. It is important to note that these therapies do not heal the damage done to the nervous system but it improves the quality of life.

Causes of Head Injury

The causes of a traumatic Head Injury can be classified as follows:
  • Falls- Lack of proper movement leading to falling out of bed, slipping in the bath, falling down steps, falling from ladders and related falls
  • Vehicle collisions- A common cause of TBI is collisions involving cars, motorcycles or bicycles and pedestrians involved in such accidents.
  • Violence-Violence coming from gunshot wounds, domestic violence or child abuse can also lead to violence
  • Extreme Sports- Traumatic Head Injuries occurs due to injuries from a number of sports, including soccer, boxing, football, baseball, lacrosse, skateboarding, hockey, and other high-impact or extreme sports.
A Head Injury can occur following these series of events:
  • The first injury occurs right after the accident in seconds
  • The second injury occurs when an experienced medical help comes within minutes and hours after this
  • A third injury can take place at any moment after the first and second injuries and can lead to more complications

Head Injury Treatments

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STEM CELL THERAPY FOR HEAD INJURY

The possibility of stimulating neurons as a consequence of neuroplasticity forms the very basis of the aim of Stem cell therapy. Through this we not only form new cells but also reinforce the ongoing neuroplasticity.
There are many types of stem cells that can be employed during stem cell therapy. Bone marrow derived stem cells have the ability to form neural cells that help to restore the damaged tissues of the brain. A repair and renewal process in building up newer blood vessels can be carried out after the stem cells are transmitted to brain damaged areas. Development of new axons, neurogenesis and a beginning to a fresh communication will help renew the damaged area of the brain. There are some growth and neurotrophic factors that will help in restoring the neuron protection. Stem cell transplants helps to restore the cells that are lost through proliferation and differentiation. This transmits into the nervous tissues like astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and endothelial cells and ascertains practical improvement.To conclude, stem cell therapy is a successful treatment for Head Injury and facilitates to heal the injured area.

Objective radiological evidence of improvement after stem cell therapy in Head Injury

The clinical improvements that our patients exhibits are co related with the affirmative changes that are seen in the damaged nervous tissues as demonstrated by the PET-CT scan of our patients.

Pre stem cell therapy PET-CT scans showing blue areas which are areas of reduced metabolism or damage.

Post stem cell therapy PET-CT scan showing reduction in blue areas which have been replaced by green areas indicating improvement in metabolism/function

The session of stem cell therapy together with neurorehabilitation facilitates in restoring the neural network by restoring the cells that are lost and all other cells present in the tissues of the brain. The patients who have experienced an acute Head Injury can restore their old life back through these two successful programs.

Head-Injury

About Stem Cell Therapy

A repair and renewal process in building up newer blood vessels can be carried out after the stem cells transmit to brain damaged areas. Development of new axons, neurogenesis and a beginning to a fresh communication creation aligned to the present neurons will help renew the damaged area of the brain. There are some growth and neurotrophic factors that will help in restoring the neuron protection. Stem cell transplants helps to restore the cells that are lost through proliferation and differentiation. This transmits into the nervous tissues like astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and endothelial cells and ascertains practical improvement. To conclude, stem cell therapy is a successful treatment for Head Injury and facilitates to heal the injured area.

The NeuroGen Outcome

People who have experienced a severe Head Injury know that a Head Injury can leave one physically, mentally and emotionally shattered. Stem cell therapy generates new hope in patients.

We have treated more than 67 Head Injury cases with 94.22% of our patients demonstrating improvement wholly.

Our treatment program includes a stem cell therapy followed by physical therapies. Many of our patients have shown signs of improvement. They have progressed in higher mental functions, posture, trunk activity, upper limb activity, lower limb activity, coordination, oromotor skills, ambulation and all activities of Daily Living.

Case Study : Head Injury

18 year old Patient with Head
Injury following fall from train
shows improvements after
Stem Cell Therapy

Read More

Cognitive Improvements in
Head Injury Patient

Read More

Your most common questions answered

What is a Head Injury?

When a sudden blow or a jolt or trauma causes brain damage, then it is known as head Injury. The traumatic effect of Head Injury can occur from mild or a conclusion to severe or coma. A conclusion can be caused by temporary confusion while a severe TBI can get critical.

Is Head Injury completely curable/recoverable?

The recovery process of a Head Injury can be decided upon the level or degree of injury and damage to the brain. The decision can be taken again after studying which brain parts are injured.

Does it have long-term effect?

Lasting effects like a long-term neurological sequelae or neurodeficts are most likely. It may vary from severe cases of patient in coma, to paralysis of hands and legs, speech issues, swallowing issues, memory or cognitive issues.

Would my life be normal?

Some patients recover completely while some patients suffer from long term problems. The severity can be reduced by doing proper rehabilitation like physiotherapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, cognitive therapy and so on. Doing this improves the quality of life and takes the patient a step towards functional independence.

What are the possible long term complications seen?

A) A comatose patient will experience complications that any bedridden patient will have

B) If the patient does not undergo a rehabilitation session, then certain deformities or contractures are possible due to disuse of limbs

C) Myositis ossificans can be classified as calcium and bone deposits in the joints which restricts joint movements and ambulation. So giving deep massages should be avoided.

D) Fits or seizures are experienced by some patients, who have suffered a Head Injury or TBI. It usually starts with an antiepileptic.

What is the role of stem cell therapy in a patient with Head Injury?

Stem cell therapy along with rehabilitation works in the recovery of neurological deficits like all other incurable neurological disorders. It can help to improve all other problems which cannot be improved by rehabilitation alone.

How does stem cell therapy work?

The biological task of stem cells is to replenish and renew damaged cells. Stem cell therapy exploits this role by administering these cells in high concentrations directly in and around the damaged tissue, where they move forward with its self healing and repair.

Are there ethical concerns surrounding adult stem cell research and therapy?

No, there are no ethical concerns surrounding adult stem cell research and therapy. Ethical concerns are mostly occurs through the use of embryonic cells. Our therapy consists of using cells which are taken out from the patient’s own body and it is free from ethical concerns.

Does the treatment have any side effects?

The whole therapy session is safe and till date none of our patients have shown any signs of neurological deterioration. In rare cases, side effects like headache for 3-4 days, neck or back pain, vomiting, mild rash or pain at the area of bone marrow aspirations may arise. Some unexpected medical complication can occur but that is just a possibility.

How long will it take me to know that I have benefitted from the treatment?

This may vary from patient to patient. Some patients makes a speedy improvement by 3-6 months while in some cases patients take several months or years together to heal. And there are some patients that recover even before their discharge.

Is the transplantation of the stem cells done once or more than once?

This will depend on the condition of the patient. If the patient shows signs of improvement after the first surgery then a second transplantation may be suggested by a team of experts. The second transplantation can transpire anytime between 3-6 months of the first therapy.

Can other treatments be taken at the same time?

We will have to review the entire dose of medication before coming upon a decision. Generally we do allow the patients to continue their other medication. But it is better to consult a doctor beforehand